Concession of the Petroleum Lot 192
Oil Block 192 is located in the Andoas district corresponding to the Datem del Marañón province, and in the Tigre and Trompeteros districts corresponding to the Loreto province, Peru. It overlaps the territories of indigenous communities long inhabiting this area. The Quechua, Achuar and Kichwa Indigenous Peoples from the Pastaza, Corrientes and El Tigre river basins are organized in several federations.
Oil production in this territory goes back to the 1970s. Decades of oil extraction have systematically polluted the habitat which has not yet been remediated. The break of several sections of the Norperuvian oil pipeline caused that thousands of oil barrels were spilled out in the Amazon rivers and forests, which has worsened contamination in the area.
In 2015, the Peruvian state led a consultation process with these Indigenous Peoples and their organizations to provide concession of oil block 192. The consultation process was observed because it did not comply with the principle of good faith.
Nonetheless, same year through direct award Frontera Energy (a Canadian company formerly named Pacific Exploration & Production Corporation) was granted a concession contract to operate block 192. Soon after, the company celebrated contracts with the communities to acquire rights of way to their territories in exchange for economic compensations. However, it systematically broke the agreements, for which it was widely criticized. In addition, divisions between indigenous organizations were generated.
During 2017, indigenous protests and uprisings have for the most part replaced dialogue, not only because Frontera Energy would like to extend the contract term for exploitation, but most importantly because the Ministry of Energy and Mines did not accept the indigenous proposal to conduct a new consultation process on this concession contract.
This case demonstrates that violations of indigenous peoples rights and the environment have not ceased. So far, the consultation process conducted by the state in 2015 has not guaranteed the protection of Indigenous Peoples and their environment, nor has it contributed to global justice.
This case is being studied by Center for Legal Research, Training and Counselling (CICAJ) of the Academic Department of Law, of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, under the supervision of Patricia Urteaga Crovetto.